Wikipedia—Optical sight

Sight 
Sights, or optical sights, have their origins difficult to verify. It is said that at least in the 16th century Europe, it has been tried to fix the spectacle lens on the stock. It is documented that before the 19th century, telescope-type sighting devices were available on firearms for targeting in low light conditions. The scope can be divided into a holographic sight, an inner red and green point sight, and a laser sight.
 
Sight origin
In the 1840s, some American gunsmiths began manufacturing guns with optical sighting devices. In 1848, Morgan James of New York State designed a tubular sighting device of the same length as the barrel. The rear half of the device was fitted with a glass lens and had two crosshairs for aiming. Later, similar sighting devices were applied in the American Civil War. But the truly practical sight was born in 1904, developed by Carl Zeiss of Germany and used in the First World War. In the Second World War, the scope began to mature.
 
Sight classification
Until now, the scope has been divided into the following three categories:
Telescopic sight,
Collimating optical sight,
Reflex sight. Among them, telescopic sights and reflective sights are the most popular.
Comparison of telescopic, reflective and mechanical sights
Comparison of telescopic, reflective and mechanical sights
The above two types of sights are mainly used during the day, so they are collectively referred to as the day scope/sight. In addition, there are night vision/sights for nighttime aiming. The night vision device is added to the mirror, and according to the type of night vision device, it can be divided into a low-light sight and an infrared sight (which can be subdivided into active infrared and thermal imaging).
 
Infrared sight
The infrared sight is an instrument that illuminates a target with a near-infrared light source, and the target reflects infrared light to image the photoelectric conversion for nighttime aiming. It consists of infrared searchlights, photoelectric transformers, sights and power supplies (some similar to night vision goggles).


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